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PRELIMINARY DRAFT -- Polar GRAVERSE Model I
This paper is about a consistent model of elements that comprise spatial volume.
It is only for readers familiar with modern physics concepts like Planck's constant, stable particle masses, mesons, neutrinos, photons, spin and parity.
"The Particle Hunters" by Kirsh and Ne'eman [2nd ed, ISBN:0-521-47686-0] is an excellent resource as it covers the entire range of modern physics in both a detailed and general manner.
The basis for the model is paired opposite monopoles that form layers of nuclear scale magnetic repulsion that inflate space.
Particles are composed of same pole monopoles that rotate in these repulsive layers resulting in electrical Charge.
Positive charges rotate in the CCW direction while CW rotation produces a negative electrical field.
Inertia is the force experienced by particles transiting between these planes of magnetic repulsion.
This paper models atomic spatial volume as 8.47... fm Polar Aether layers. Each layer contains adjacent North and South Fermion Planes.
Using Paired 67 Kev N/S monopoles of static discrete angular momenta, Composite Monopoles can form using four "Half-Electrons" as the base.
These elements align to form Polar Aether columns via magnetic repulsion.
Inertia occurs when rotating half-particle monopoles transit between the dual Fermion Plane layers.
When Charge is involved, this chiral rotation creates an axial ELUX column that generates an atomic scale Electric field.
Photons can be viewed as a dynamic charge in motion or an ELUX chain between the Photon ends of opposite monopoles.
Since dual Fermion Planes are used for normal particle dynamics, anything that travels in only one of them like Neutrinos, would interact very rarely.
This paper, the first of three papers, describes the Graverse Model of the structure of Space as volume.
It has themes of Top-down, Bottom-up and the model in detail.
This Static model reveals the dynamical workings of Gravity and Acceleration.
It maps closely to the known Universe based on particle physics data and
laws of both 2D and 3D geometry.
You the reader, are asked to make that comparison once you digest this new and unique view
of what is known from Physics and Mathematics.
This is a model of how space works and why it does, based solely on laws of magnetism and geometry.
All of this required no gravity, quarks or strings.
Space as an Ocean
Our human scale is inadequate when dealing with either very large or very small scales; especially when outer space or atomic volumes are just part of the way to their seemingly far distant ends.
The nuclear scale is the bottom scale where our protons and neutrons rotate and all matter is based.
Using the vast ocean as a spatial analog brings pressure and size that vary by scale and depth into perspective.
Going from the open Ocean to Water molecules reminds us that each scale has its own features and meanings.
Even when material from other sources is present, clouding the current deep view, the overall presentation brings a clarity to the task of education and completeness.
Just as water's precise scale starts at the atomic scale, this paper's spatial volume begins at the same atomic or angstrom scale.
Volume's discreet nature is also revealed in the constant 22.4-mole ratio of all liquids to gas.
The Monopole scale discussed in this paper begins below the nuclear scale at an unknown depth
and then both meet at the POLAR Planck 'h' scale, which contains a nuclear Fermion Plane between two repulsive magnetic poles.
All sections use a syntax to illustrate the Model's commonallity and connections;
eg. 5SPACE's principles of dimensionality: generic D1, followed by formal D2_area, D3_physical_volume and D4_Time.
The fifth as both dynamic energy(5D) and static particle mass(D5); from the duality of 5D as -E=M-cc and D5 as M=E/cc.
SOVol: GRAVERSE I
Before actual physical volume structure is discussed, the following text and figures of volume's discrete shapes and ratios are presented,
both for three-dimensional orientation and spatial contents.
Keep in mind a Proton's volume is 'h' scaled at ten to the thirty-ninth power, 10^-39 cubic centimeters!
Volume's range for this paper is defined as the Atomic scale down to nuclear scale,
1.03682 e-8cm to 1 e-13cm, a Height or diameter ratio of 103682
or P^24 as 72 P^3 volumes series Dron steps.
'P' is the Golden Ratio 1.618... from (Sqrt(5)+1)/2 and 'H' refers to the Height of the dodecaheDrons;
while 'h' refers to the Planck constant.
H^n+1 has P^3 more volume than H^n, its face areas are P^2 larger and its height is P larger.
H^n+3 has P^9(76~) more volume than H^n, its face areas are P^6(18~) larger and its height is P^3(4.23...) larger.
TOP DOWN: Atomic to Nuclear
The 24 volume nested height sequence has the atomic H^72 Dron at the top , followed
by its interior H^69 Dron, then its interior H^66 Dron, then its interior H^63 Dron,....
down to the H^9, then its interior H^6 Dron, followed by its interior H^3 Bottom Dron.
This bottom or last dron at the 'h' scale is a Volume QUANTUM that corresponds to photon wavelength.
The bottom H^3 Dron's interior contains the nuclear scale Fermion Plane of 'h', where Inertial Particle halves can rotate.
A special unique SPACE onto itself with its own scales and rules for its transient occupants and contents.
So the simple answer to Space's structure is that atomic Volume consists of paired alternating
South and North Fermion Planes of 8.47... fm height (twice 'h') that form 'scale-local' Polar columns.
The H^72 dron of the atomic scale would be a column stack of 12237~ of the 8.47 fm dual N/S Fermion layers.
These layers are shown in 2D static and dynamic relief.
Also note that Proton's charge axis provides a polar reference for the entire atomic volume and beyond;
and thus being the stuff we see as solid atoms and molecules.
Table of Contents
BOTTOM UP: 5SPACE to Nuclear Aether scale
Historical experiments have established if an Aether exists, that it has a relative frame,
and its motion can not be measured .
Once a ubiquitous aether exists, the energy of "empty space" must then reflect
whatever the aether's energy is; as well as its distribution.
The mass node at N=3 predicted by the 5SPACE Mass model,
based on stable particle mass nodes at (N/2)^5 ; was used to model various configurations.
Investigation of this 3.88 Mev node revealed resonances at 121 Kev and 134 Kev, based on Inverse Cherenkov experiments.
These two values are the same found in the decay of Cobalt-57 to Iron-57,
in the original experiments of Mossbauer spectroscopy.
By assuming the 67 and 255 Kev as the Magnetic Monopole static energy values,
a stable and consistent model of an Aether node emerged by pairing them in the following geometrical manner.
#1. The Aether reference frame has SIX geometrical Axes, arranged in a mutual 60-degree dodecaheDron manner.
These Drons would Tessellate and thus tile the 3D environment of the nuclear-scaled aether.
Note that 3/2 Spin is a result of five axes rotating about the sixth and overlaying each other.
#2. The Theoretical static minimum energy of a CMP CMP is 3727 Kev [ 2 * ( ( 12 * ( 67 + 67 ) ) + 255 ) ] ;
which matches the limit reached in the 1995 Inverse Cherenkov experiments at BNL.
Note that two nodes have 7.5~ Mev of energy, which is also the nuclear fusion limit.
CM: Composite Monopole structure
A 255 Kev half-electron Dron core is surrounded by an outer shell of twelve 134 Kev mutually touching
North and South Vicky vection Monopoles of 67 Kev each; forming a CM
or Composite Monopole.
Two CM's pair to form a CMP while two CMP's form a quad or CMQ which is the basis of the Polar Aether.
The polar axis through a CMP is illustrated thus:
North pole end ---> [ N67/S67...N255...S67/N67/S67/N67...S255...N67/S67 ] ---> South Pole end
"/" represents opposite Monopole contact, "..." are internal spatial gaps, and "[ ]" brackets each CMP.
The shape formed is two classic soccer/bucky balls.
Two CMP's or a CMQ form an Aether node as shown.
These nodes form the chain of extended Polar Aether columns.
Half electron structure
The e/2 or Half-Electron of 255 Kev is the key aether and matter element/atom
due to its intrinsic rotation or spin and ubiquity.
The CMQ contains four half-electron monopoles, two North, and two South;
their canceling spins stabilize the polar nature of the aether,
and explain the source and commonality of pair production.
The model assumes the size of the half-electron Dron is unique spatially and traps the two 67 Kev
Vection monopoles in a repulsive rotating configuration. Additionally, a CMQ can be seen as
halving into two CMP's and inflating the 'h' scale Dron volume via magnetic repulsion along an axis.
The 7.5 Mev CMQ is the basis for both the Polar Aether columns and the non-polar columns, at the resulting 'h' scale as shown in static 2D and 3D figures.
From a front-on cross section perspective,an aether polar column" alternate with non-polar ones.
From a axis cross section perspective, each polar column is surrounded by six non-polars columns..
A more detailed view of CMQ elements at different scales.
When rotating particle halves occupy a nuclear Fermion Plane, long range charge alignment results,
making an atomic scale spine seen as an ELUX chain".
The method is a centered STATIC column that connects the atomic top and bottom via the ~24474 layers of 'h' aether nodes between them.
Table of Contents
Mass and Photon Simple model
Assumptions, details provided in relevant sections and figures.
- The Model presents only Static states of general dynamic particle processes.
- Volume from the Atomic scale to the nuclear scale is tiled with six axes, tessellated Polar dodecaheDrons.
- Volume where Uncertainty Principle reigns below the scale of the uiversal 'h' Dron of H^3 = 4.23... fm.
- Spatial discrete volume has at least three fixed Dron sizes; the Aether 'h' scale, the smaller half-electron scale and the Atomic electrical scale; all of which are inflated via magnetic forces.
- The CMQ axial angular momenta of the four half-electrons maintain each Aether node's shared Polarization.
- 5SPACE's index of (3/2)^5 predicts 67 Kev as the monopole mass value; its 1+5+1 sided shape is named 'Vection'.
- 67 Kev Monopoles are discrete forms of angular momenta that become Static when arrested and can not rotate when a North Vection is paired with a South Vection in a Vicky touching configuration.
- Inertial mass of Particles is caused by same pole monopoles rotating in a Fermion Plane bounded by same pole magnetic repulsion. An SF (Strong Force) overcomes the repellant force between the two poles.
- The CHARGE Model has two chiral states from the dynamics of inertial monopole angular momentum.
A 'Neutral' charge state emerges when particles in two adjacent Fermion Planes, cancel each other's spin.
- Charge's sign as the direction of rotation in a polar axis downward sense; which also explains why Parity violations occur; left and right emerge due to there always being a local up and down in a polar nuclear sense.
- Elecrical Field of the Atomic scale is manifested or formed by sequential Aether axial nodes called 'ELUX' chains, that connect the two bare opposite atomic pole ends of the static ELUX axial chain.
- Photons consist of polar opposite end monopoles connected by dynamic 'ELUX' aether chains as shown in the model figures.
- The Monopole scale lies an unknown range below the 'h' Aether scale which it Inflates.
- A Polar Aether has a reversed charge direction sense when viewed in an 180-degree rotation.
- Antimatter has two senses; the usual charge inversion and which Fermion Plane in use.
- Neutrinos are monopoles traveling in only one Fermion Plane rather than in a pair of adjacent planes for normal particles; anti-neutrinos and neutrinos travel in opposite fermion planes.
- Strangeness involves monopole occupation in one of the two adjacent Fermion planes.
- Kaon decay explained by dual Fermion Plane distribution into halves, quads and early, later.
Paired monopoles accumulations are the basis of all three types of Mass;
Inertial Mass is caused by monopole pairs of half-particles rotating in Fermion Planes,
Static Mass is the Aether's 7.5 Mev CMQ nodes,
and Dynamic Mass is a temporary increase in mass, described in part II: SOMat.
Two CMQ's sum to 17.5 Mev as the PMF (Partcle Mass Factor) common to all stable particles.
A PMF is capable of being a two-axes-configuration in a volume surface inflation sense.
Table of Contents
Charge and Mesons
Charge is defined as the Particle's angular momentum manifested as an atomic scale axial static Elux chain,
whose sign is its direction of rotation. eg. A plus Pion meson is a pair of two CCW
rotating monopoles in adjacent Fermion Planes, that total four halves.
A minus Pion meson is a pair of two CW rotating monopoles in adjacent Fermion Planes.
A neutral pion is comprised of two CCW rotating South monopoles and
two CW rotating North monopoles in adjacent Fermion Planes; which cancel each other's rotation direction.
Electrons only radiate when they leave their fermion planes; therefore, stable atomic orbits are in the same fermion plane due to their local polar orientation.
When a charged pion decays, the bottom two monopoles separate; one comes apart and joins the top pair
to reform as two half-Muons while the remaining bottom monopole pair continues on in its Fermion Plane as a Neutrino.
Strangeness is a combination of adjacent Fermion Plane mechanics and internal orientation offsets;
it and Baryons will be described in detail in the future SOMat paper.
A Photon is a "DYNAMIC ELUX chain of 'h' units of wavelength" between its opposite monopole rotating ends.
To be absorbed, both ends must connect in an external geometry mechanism, exactly one wavelength apart.
To be reflected, the leading monopole changes direction, pulling the other end along.
As 'h' is the minimum possible aether wavelength, the model requires the monopole ends
to increase in size to accommodate the ever-larger energy scales possible for high energy photons.
The two photons of neutral pion decay come from combining the two south monopoles and the two north monopoles
together to form two N/S elux chains as high energy photons whose heavy ends reflect a fourth of pion mass.
Table of Contents
Electron and Pion Charge Model examples
A Standard Electron is two North Monopoles spinning in the CW or 'minus' directional sense in a NORTH Fermion Plane.
while a South Positron pair would spin in the CCW or 'plus' direction in a SOUTH Fermion Plane.
Each half-electron Monopole had 255 Kev of moving inertial mass ( 67+121+67 = 255 ).
The Pion meson family illustrates all three charge mode possible.
Table of Contents
Graverse II - SOMat Predictions
Meson family structures and decay sub-models.
Kaon and Omega six axes decay stats documented
Kaon Neutrino is two Pion shelled, Half-Muon's that decay into a Muon and Pion.
Half-Muon as the core of all half-Baryons
Five Baryon layers: 1st=Muon, 3rd=Proton and Omega=5th.
Strangeness as adjacent Fermion Plane orientations and occupations
Neutron via its internal electron was a strange of minus zero, to Proton's plus zero strangeness.
DodecaheDron 'h' scaled structure of the FLAT Nucleus template and Periodic table, illustrated.
Zero Point Energy as Aether vibrational LOCAL Noise or 3D geometrical nuclear-scaled friction.
GLOSSARY & Figures
CW & CCW as Clock Wise and Counter-Clock Wise rotation as Charge's sign; from above view
(s) discrete plurals as in year(s) vs years when specific vs vague, is in play.
Dron as a Dodecahedron: 12 sided, six axes polyhedron
Atomic scale H^72 Dodecahedron with middle H^69 dron.
Just above the Nuclear scale at the H^3 zone where uncertainty begins, inside of a 'h' gubble.
Nuclear scale H^3 Dodecahedron with a middle Fermion Plane.
CM: Composite North Monopole @1.9 Mev from twelve 134 Kev Vection pairs that surround a 255 Mev half-electron.
CMP: Composite Monopole Pair as two 1.9 Mev [pentagons not to scale].
CMP: An Axial view of a Composite Monopole Pair @3.8 Mev as two CM's
CMQ: An Axial view of a Composite Monopole Quad @7.5 Mev
Scale'd polar cmq vections and quads.
Gubble: a non-Polar 'h' element as a bubble inflated by magnetic repulsion between two CMP's.
Static 2D & 3D Aether of Polar magnetic columns of 'h' nodes, compared.
2D Static & Dynamic Aether of 'h' nodes compared.
3D Static Aether of polar 'h' node columns.
Charge as ELUX column of polar 'h' alternating nodes.
Column of 3D Aether polar nodes.
ELUX: A 3D, one axis sequential chain of alternate aether nodes that connect photon ends or an atomic E-field.
'h' P^3 = 4.23... fm Planck Constant SCALE as absolute bottom of VOLUME
The Vection: A 1+5+1 sided shape as 3D cross section!
Four 67 Vection monopoles total 268 Kev that form two vicky's that connect CM's into a CMP.
A 255 Kev Half-electron as two 67 Kev same pole, CW rotating vection monopoles with a 121 Kev repulsive mid-zone.
Aether Polar Axes cross section perspective from above.
2D Photon representation
3D Photon representation of two intersecting photons
3D Positive Pion with an upward ELUX chain loop.
3D Neutral Pion with no ELUX chains as spins cancel.
3D Negative Pion with an downward ELUX chain loop.
2D Pion Family representation
SOUTH Fermion Plane: A one fm~ gap between top and bottom CMQ repulsive magnetic fields,
where the PROTON Pair revolve in CCW way.
Monopole: Vection shaped Angular momentum of 67 Kev in a dynamic spin state unless Vicky paired with an opposite pole that makes their 134 Kev Static
PAZIMP: "Plane of Absolute Zero Infinite Monopole Pairs" as the 'Before Big Bang' or B^3 model
Table of Contents
This first paper I, titled the "Structure Of Space as Volume" (SOVol), has three themes in sequence.
The first theme is Top-down from the atomic to nuclear scales.
The second is Bottom-up, starting from the 5SPACE Aether node value of (3/2)^5 of 3.88 Mev;
and the third is the Photon and Meson charge Models in detail;
The second paper II, titled the "Structure Of Mass from paired Monopoles" (SOMat), is under construction.
The third paper III, will endeavor to describe the Model Genesis
from its PAZIMP or "Plane of Absolute Zero Infinite Monopole Pairs" origin.
Where Gravity and Time do not exist, only Magnetism's North and South MonoPoles stuck together in a perpetual embrace of the other.
Space does not exist yet but there is an external emptiness, above and below the Plane, in a three-dimensional, pi/2 estimated sense.
Given the Polar Aether structure that results from the CMP and CMQ elements with the ensuing Fermion Planes,
many previously obscure or unknown phenomena become clear; Charge, Inertia, Neutrinos, Strangeness, and nature of an E-Field.
This paper models aether layers of Spatial volume(s) that reveal the cause of inertia as rotating half-particle monopoles transiting Fermion Plane layers.
If Charge is involved, this chiral rotation creates an axial ELUX column that generates an atomic scale Electric field.
Photons can be viewed as dynamic charge in motion as an ELUX chain between the monopole ends.
Since dual Fermion Planes are needed for normal particle motion,
anything that travels in only one of them such as Neutrinos would interact very rarely given how few particles dwell there.
This Static model reveals the dynamical workings of Gravity and Acceleration.
Local Acceleration is achieved by pushing against the Fermion Planes the object is immersed in.
Gravity's force is caused by the descending Fermion Planes which push all mass downward.
The coming Graverse II model will use this Aether's 'h' scaled media to present a complete model of
Particle structure, given the PMF nature of matter within the 'h' scale frame.
eg. Where and how of Kinetic energy is explained in static detail.
eg. Adjacent planes explain some decay avenues along with six axes strange alignments.
Table of Contents
Appendix PMF ; "The Particle Mass Factor".
The Statistics of Particle Mass; its common denominator is 17.5 Mev
|Particle ||Muon ||Pion ||
Kaon ||Proton ||Sigma ||Lamda || Chi ||Omega ||
|Mev ||105.66 ||139.57 ||
493.7 ||938.27 ||1189.4 ||1115 ||1190 ||1673 ||
|/17.5Mev ||6~ ||8~ ||
28~ ||54~ ||68~ ||64~ ||76~ ||96~ ||
|PMF / 2 ||3 ||4 ||14 ||27 ||34
||32 ||38 || 48 |
5SPACE's Particle Mass Table from (N/2)^5
|INDEX N || Name ____ ||Electron masses || * .511 Mev
||error % ||Value______ ||Notes__________ ||24 ||H ||248832 ||127.1~ Gev ||-1.6%
||125.~ Gev ||LHC Higgs as the upper limit.
|22.5 ||Z ||180203 ||92.08 Gev ||-1.1%
||91.18 Gev ||Neutral Weak Force Boson |
|22 ||W ||161051 ||82.3 Gev ||-2.4%
||80.4 Gev ||Charged Weak Force Boson |
|12+ || || || ||
|| ||Exotic Matter Zones |
|11 ||MAX ||5033 ||2600 Mev ||+10%
||~2860 Mev ||Baryon Scale volume Limit |
|10 ||Omega ||3124 ||1597 Mev ||+4.6%
||1673 Mev ||Strange = -3 |
|9 ||Proton ||1845.3 ||943 Mev ||-0.5%
||938.3 Mev ||Hydrogen |
|8 ||K' ||1024 ||523 Mev ||-0.4%
||520.6 Mev ||K'=(Kaon+Eta)/2 |
|7' ||Pion ||275 ||140.52 Mev ||-0.7%
||139.6 Mev ||243+32=275 |
|6 ||Empty ||243 ||124 Mev ||_
|| ||Table mid-zone |
|5' ||Muon ||211 ||107.82 Mev ||-2.1%
||105.66 Mev ||243-32=211
|4 ||PMF ||32 ||16.4 Mev ||+7%
||17.5 Mev ||Nuclear Common Mass Factor |
|3 ||CMP | ICA
||7.6 ||3.88 Mev ||-4.8%
||3.7 Mev ||Composit Monopole Pair | Inverse Chrenkov limit |
|2 ||Electron ||1 ||.511 Mev ||0
||.511 Mev ||Table reference Mass
|1 ||ATOM ||1/32 ||16 Kev ||-0.122% ||15.82~ ||Smallest monopole Quantum = 67Kev/P^3 . |
Table of Contents
LINKS & References
author: RD O'Meara Oak Park, IL.
Email of Author: 'RDo.email@example.com'
This WEB page address: "http://mister-computer.net/graverse/sovol/solvol.htm"
1995 ICA paper at BNL
Primes3D: A Construction Proof of Prime Numbers having a cubic Nature.
JID's SLOPE: The Universal Slope of Volume,
both Mathematically and Physically AKA, the Rydberg constant of 1.0973~!
Short proof of Fermat's FLT: A proof based on power sequences infinite transcendental Logs.
My Real interests are in computer science.
I have spent my career as a cybernetic engineer/designer
who is concerned about the future of our digital data.
Our entire cyber infra-structure lacks "Data Sanity";
especially in the areas of forgery and security, for data and their time stamps.
In that vein, I am seeking venture capital for my NEW multi-Computer
Distributed Kernel SECURITY Architecture or 'DSA' ; based on
Posopip: a 3CPU template that inherently guarantees Trust & Fidelity.
Table of Contents
It's taken over thirty years to put it all together.
All with Dr. C. Anabis spiritual guidance in helping me interpret my Heavenly Visions.
Visions of how the Creator made our universe from hjs LAWs of Mathematics and Geometry.
The same universe that matches the GRAVERSE I Model of this paper; so yes, I had DivinE HelP!